Brain Scans

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


Traumatic Brain Injury, or TBI, is a complex injury
with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities.
A TBI occurs when a sudden trauma damages the
brain. A TBI can also be called a brain injury, an
acquired head injury, or simply a concussion.



MRI and CAT scans can pinpoint damage, but
diagnosis usually relies on observation and
presence of symptoms. Symptoms can easily be
overlooked, especially if there is other trauma to
the body, and the diagnosis of TBI can be missed.
Cognitive skills testing can help diagnose TBI and is
usually administered several days after the trauma.  Cognitive skills testing can reveal which cognitive skills need to be strengthened to enable recovery. The tests measure all cognitive skills including
memory, processing speed, visual and auditory
processing, logic and reasoning, and attention.


TBI is caused when the head suddenly and violently
hits an object, when the head is powerfully jolted
or shaken, or when an object pierces the skull and
enters brain tissue.

Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe
and are not always immediate. They include:

  • Headache

  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

  • Confusion

  • Memory loss

  • Blurred vision or tired eyes

  • Ringing in the ears

  • Bad taste in the mouth

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Convulsions or seizures

  • Numbness or poor coordination in limbs

  • Fatigue or lethargy

  • Agitation or restlessness

  • Change in sleep patterns

  • Mood swings and behavior changes

  • Trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the United States each year approximately:

  • 1.5 million people suffer a TBI

  • 50,000 people die from TBI

  • 85,000 people suffer long-term disabilities

Disabilities depend on the location and severity of the injury, and the age and health of the individual. For people who recover, common long-term disabilities include problems with cognition (memory, attention, reasoning), sensory
processing (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing), communication (expressing and understanding) and behavior or mental health (depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, social inappropriateness).


Initial treatment focuses on stabilizing the patient to prevent further injury along with testing, observation, and mental and physical rest. Long term rehabilitation can include:

  • Physical therapy

  • Occupational therapy

  • Speech or language therapy

  • Counseling

  • Social therapy

  • Vision therapy

  • Psychiatric or psychological counseling

  • Cognitive skills testing and training

BrainRx cognitive skills training, post-TBI, can dramatically improve cognitive skills and greatly reduce or eliminate cognition problems with concentration, attention, memory, processing speed and visual and auditory processing.

"People with brain injuries—whether the injury was sustained during an accident, illness, or while playing sports—also see great results from brain training. People with brain injuries commonly struggle with thinking, memory, reasoning, and focus—all of which are strengthened by our programs." - BrainRx

Helpful Resources

The Dana Foundation

Brain Injury Resource Center



—  BrainRx Student

Brain Training Results